In order to incorporate the Patterns in Nature materials into our General Chemistry curricula this year, we wanted to explore the logical placement of the materials, activities and simulations into those curricula. We also wanted to place activities into an order that would promote the ideas of cognitive apprenticeship. In particular, the ideas of modeling, coaching, fading, scaffolding, articulation, reflection and exploration.

An outline of topics for a general course in Chemistry was developed using a variety of textbooks and teacher input. Institute personnel and participants were interviewed for opinions on topic placement. Objectives that reflect the tenets of cognitive apprenticeship were developed and ordered to support the sequencing advocated by this teaching method.

**Physical - Chemical changes**

Key chain activity - observation/prediction

*Objective: Demonstrate an introduction to fractals*

*Objective: making predictions*

**
Elements-Compounds-mixtures**

**Measurements (density, SI unit, SIG Figs)**

Coastline - intro to fractals

*Objective: different ways of measuring*

*Objective: Compare accuracy. precision*

**Discovery and Evidence**

Random walks

*Objective: Detect trends in statistics*

*Objective: Develop proficiency in simulation software Winning
Streak?, Random Walk*

*Objective: Correlate simulations and models*

**Atomic and mass numbers, Isotopes**

**Quantum Theory**

**Bohr - Electron Configurations**

Rough Surfaces

*Objective: Simulate ground state minimum energies*

**History and development**

**Trends**

random walks

*Objective: Increase Complexity by showing 2 dimensional walks
(Many Walkers, Anthill, Deer)*

**Ionic - Covalent Bonding**

Random Walks

*Objective: Establish the need for optimum conditions for bonding*

Spin glasses Neural networks

*Objective: Increased complexity in optimum bonding conditions*

**Molecular Geometry**

Fractal Patterns: Branching structures

*Objective: Observe and explain the patterns of crystal growth using fractal dimension tools*

*Objective: Compare rapid vs. slow crystal growth (ECD)*

**Mole relationships**

Diffusion

*Objective: Predicting reaction results (Liesegang Rings)*

**
Limiting Reactants and Percent yield**

Oozing and Growing: Percolation

* Objectives: Graphically simulating the effect of limiting
reactants Software Deer*

*Objective: Visually demonstrating the effect of limiting reactants
Software Blaze*

**
Diffusion**

*Objective: Predict and articulate the connections between the
software and chemical processes*

**
Branching structures**

*Objective: Predict the effects of interactions between liquids(Hele-Shaw)*

*Objective: Interpret results using Fractal Dimension*

*Objective: Student research project *

**
Self-Organized Criticality**

*Objective : to simulate granular flow*

*Objectives: Investigate the relationship between random acts and
predictable out comes.*

**
Concentrations and Solubility**

Random Walks

*Objective: Have students use Deer program to predict a stable
chemical system.*

*Objective: Investigate saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated
conditions using Deer program.*

**
Reversible Reactions**

**Percolation **

*objective: rationalize the similarities of the graphs from Forest and a Titration curve*

*Objective: examine critical probability and relate to pH
transition point.*

**Electro-chemistry**

Branching Structures (ECD)

*Objective: Develop independent research projects*

**Literature and DNA**

*objective: Discover how a computer program can emulate real life*

**
Self Organized Criticality**

*Objective: Students will exhibit independent use of the software to model chemical concepts. (Sand Pile)*

**Percolation**

*Objective: Students will compare performance to expert's theories*

There are many topics in a general Chemistry course where we could implement the Patterns in Nature activities. The open-ended nature of the activities lend themselves to many interpretations and higher order learning opportunities. The activities also are an excellent format for the methods of cognitive apprenticeship.